A small tear or cut in the lining of the anus is called as anal fissure. It can cause severe pain and bleeding may occur after or during bowel movements. Some medical conditions such as infection, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or cancer may occur as a result of this. People of all ages can get affected by this disease, infants and young children are generally diagnosed with this disease. Normally, these fissures get healed on their own in 4 to 6 weeks. These fissures are termed as long-term or chronic if they persist even after 8 weeks of their eruption.
Basic treatments such as stool softeners and topical pain relievers are given to patients at first. Surgery is recommended only after these treatments fail to produce the desired effects. Symptoms of an anal fissure may include, itching or burning in the anal area, severe pain experienced during bowel movements, a visible tear around anus, blood spots on stool or toilet roll after wiping.
This condition generally occurs due to passing of hard or large stools. Frequent diarrhoea or constipation issues can also be a reason for the same. The anal fissures can be made to heal by applying calcium channel blocker ointment in order to relax the sphincter muscles. Botox injections can also be given into the anal sphincter. This will paralyze the muscle temporarily thereby preventing spasms in the anus.
If these treatments fail to provide relief, it is likely that your doctor recommends an anal sphincterotomy. A small incision is made in the anal sphincter in this process, in order to relax the muscle. To reduce the risk of an anal fissure one should: keep the anal area clean and dry, taking plenty of fluids, exercising regularly and eating fibrous foods, frequent change of diapers (in case of infants). Many hospitals in Delhi provide treatment of anal fissures.